Themes (themata in Greek) were military zones, each administered by a military governor, the strategos (q.v.), much like the exarchates of Carthage and Ravenna (qq.v.). The earliest themes, including the Anatolikon, Armeniakon, Opsikion, and Thrakesion (qq.v.) protected Asia Minor (q.v.) against the attacks of Arabs (q.v.). The backbone of the theme system consisted of soldier-farmers, each of whom pledged personal and hereditary service in return for a grant of land; the system seemed to infer that funds derived from taxation (q.v.) were insufficient (or not the best way) to maintain such widely scattered soldiers. Such soldiers' properties (stratiotika ktimata) may have originated as early as 622 under Herakleios (q.v.), in response to the Persian (q.v.) threat. Their preservation of stratiotika ktimata demanded the vigilance of 10th-century emperors (q.v.) such as Nikephoros II Phokas (q.v.). Themes appear to have been developed in response to regional needs. The tendency of large thematic armies to revolt led to the division of large themes into smaller themes in the eighth and ninth centuries. In the 11th century the system deteriorated rapidly, beginning with Basil II (q.v.), who relied more on his Varangians (q.v.) and on a paid army. At the battle of Mantzikert in 1071, roughly a half-century later, the thematic levies that faced the Seljuks (q.v.) were utterly ill-disciplined and ill-equipped. The core of Romanos IV's army were mercenaries.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Themes 2 — Студийный альбом …   Википедия

  • Themes — в вычислительной технике, тема, это пакет данных, содержащий графические детали внешнего вида, который используется, как правило, для настройки интерфейса какого либо приложения (к примеру, операционная система Mac OS X или архиватор WinRAR) и… …   Википедия

  • themes — index contents Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • Thèmes — Thème (Empire byzantin) Pour les articles homonymes, voir thème. Les thèmes (ou en grec themata, singulier : thema, «corps d armée», puis par extension «région militaire») furent des divisions administratives de l Empire byzantin. Contexte… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Themes 2 — Infobox Album Name = Themes 2 Type = studio Longtype = Artist = Psychic TV Cover size = Caption = Released = 1985 Recorded = Genre = Length = Language = Label = Temple Records TOPY 004 Producer = Reviews = Compiled by = Chronology = Last album =… …   Wikipedia

  • Themes 3 — Infobox Album Name = Themes 3 Type = studio Artist = Psychic TV Released = 1987 Recorded = Genre = Length = Label = Temple Records TOPY 019 Producer = Reviews = Last album = This album = Next album = Themes 3 is an LP album by Psychic TV. Track… …   Wikipedia

  • Themes artistiques — Thèmes artistiques Présentation générale Histoire de la peinture Mouvements picturaux …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Thèmes de la peinture — Thèmes artistiques Présentation générale Histoire de la peinture Mouvements picturaux …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Themes de la science-fiction — Thèmes de la science fiction L une des caractéristiques les plus notables de la science fiction est qu elle est constituée de thèmes récurrents qui forment une sorte de culture commune[1]. Certains thèmes existent depuis les origines de la SF et… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Themes from William Blake's The Marriage of Heaven and Hell — Themes from William Blake s The Marriage of Heaven and Hell …   Википедия

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”